Saturday, May 23, 2020

Leadership Style Of Bill Gates - 1607 Words

Section A: Bill Gates was the former CEO of the computer software giant Microsoft. It was not purely on inherited merit or luck that he was able to lead and maintain Microsoft, one substantial attribution to the success of Microsoft was due to the leadership style of Bill Gates. The main philosophy that Bill Gates used was autocratic leadership. Autocratic leadership can be defined as: a person who maintains most of the decision making process for themselves (DuBrin A.J., 2013). An advantage of the autocratic leadership style was that corporate decisions were made more efficiently, if Bill were a democratic or consultative leader, it might have taken longer for Microsoft to seize primary markets of interests. Gates was also competent in delegating tasks to the right people, such as allowing the engineering teams to work at full capacity to meet their production goals. Microsoft’s success can be linked to the proper delegation of duties to the correct personnel, and a focus on goal-based decision making. Microsoft would not have grown in recognition and revenue if Gates stuck solely to an autocratic leadership style. Although autocratic leadership was one of Gates’ dominant leadership traits, he adapted a contingency approach to how he led his company and inspired his employees. The major idea of the contingency-approach is that the leader must adapt to the environmental changes. A contingency-approach to leadership stands as shifting behavior to properly handle situational,Show MoreRelatedComparison in Leadership Styles for Steve Jobs vs Bill Gates3475 Words   |  14 PagesExecutive Summary Leadership is not a position but rather a process which involves the leader, the followers and the situation. Great leaders lead with the best interests of their employees in mind. A leader must lead according to the needs of the organization. The leader must not only be successful as a leader, but also bring success to the organization and its employees. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the leadership styles of two successful entrepreneurs. The paper consists ofRead MoreLeadership Styles : Leadership Style780 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Leadership style is designed according to a pioneer s behaviors, which is enveloped under behaviorist theory. Inside of this class, distinctive examples of leadership behavior are watched and classified as leadership styles. Practicing managers have a tendency to be the most keen on looking into this specific theory in light of the fact that with it leaders can modify their style taking into account the convictions, values, inclinations and society of the association they work for.Read MoreBiography Of William Henry Gates IIi Essay1414 Words   |  6 PagesGates? William Henry Gates III was born in Seattle, Washington on October 28, 1955. He has always shown interest in computers since the age of 13 years old where he attended Lakeside School. Bill grew up in a upper middle class. He has two sisters named Kristianna and Libby. His mother’s name was Mary and his father was William Sir. Growing up Bill’s house hold was warm and close they were always encouraged to be competitive and strive for success. Bill was very close to his mother. Mary had aRead MoreEffectiveness Of Bill Gates As A Managerial Leader1120 Words   |  5 PagesEffectiveness of Bill Gates as a managerial leader Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid is a behavioural leadership grid that is based on four elements, namely, leadership style, motivation, concern for people and concern for production. It resulted in five managerial styles on the basis of the priority the leader placed on the people and product (Koc et al, 2013). They are Team Leader, Country Club, Middle of the Road, Produce or Perish and Impoverished (Ledlow and Coppola, 2011). In the Blake andRead MoreFamous Leadership of Walt Disney and Bill Gates1244 Words   |  5 Pagesdo. They influenced other people to be as imaginative and hardworking as they were. They never stopped believing in what they were doing. The two most leaders who fit all these descriptions would be Walt Disney and Bill gates, even thought they have a lot in common, their leadership style was completely different. Walter Elias Disney also known as Walt Disney is known for his imagination that changed the world. He is an inspiring person who is known for never giving up and always dreaming. He createdRead MoreTransformational Leaders : Bill Gates And Melinda1223 Words   |  5 PagesTransformational Leaders: Bill Gates and Melinda The root of William Howard Bill Gates can be traced back to early of the 1900s when the popular press and many leaders’ researchers maintained that the leaders and followers were significantly different. Bill Gate was born in 1954, in Seattle Washington. Bill had a difference from masses, which chooses to follow him (Shah Mulla, 2013). As indicated by the text, even the followers of the leaders possess similar characteristics of people they followRead MoreBill Gates : A Leader1284 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership Identify a leader and justify why you selected that particular leader Bill Gates Not everyone is a leader or even want the attention or time it takes to be a leader. Leaders must be available for everyone that means sharing who they are with the world. This leader took his business and made a name for himself. Leaders are fantastic speakers, yet talking honorably isn t excessively required of a leader. As we all in all know, there are many people who talk and are overwhelming. ThisRead More Gates Essay1494 Words   |  6 PagesGates Bill Gates co-founded Microsoft in 1975 and served as its Chief Executive Officer form the time the original partnership was incorporated in 1981 until January 2000. Then he resigned as Chief Executive Officer and took on the position of Chief Software Architect. Mr. Gates has served as Chairman of the Board since the company’s incorporation. Bill Gates is recognized as the youngest self-made billionaire in history. His windows operating system, runs the vast majority of personal computersRead MoreThe Situational Theory Of Situational Leadership926 Words   |  4 PagesThe Situational Approach The Situational Approach is a leadership style that essentially focuses on leadership in different situations. The premise of the theory is that different situations demand different kinds of leadership (Northouse, 2015, p. 92). The idea is that in order for a manager to be successful in all situations, he or she must be able to adapt. Effective [situational leadership} managers provide individual followers with differing amounts of direction and support on differentRead MoreThe Big Five Dimensions Of Traits1131 Words   |  5 Pagesleaders? Why? Answer:Yes.Locus control is important because the leaders who believe the power within their believe that they control their destiny, and whether their behavior directly affect their performance 5.What does intelligence have to do with leadership? Answer:Intelligence is ability to solve analytical thinking Problems that arise and to make a decision, it is for the best prediction of the implementation and operation of the managers claim to offer a high level of intelligence units. 6.Does

Monday, May 18, 2020

A Brief Note On Business Careers By Brenda Vazquez

ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS CAREERS Reported Business Careers by Brenda Vazquez Work Environment and Duties: Financial Manager Financial Managers are responsible for the financial wellbeing of an organization. The duties of financial managers’ range from preparing financial statements to helping management make financial decisions to steer the company in the right direction. Financial managers prepare financial statements, business activity reports, and forecasts. Additionally financial managers must monitor details to ensure legal requirements are being met, supervise employees who do financial reports and budgets, review financial reports to reduce costs, analyze market trends to maximize profits and find expansion opportunities. As well as†¦show more content†¦A typical week in the life of a financial manager involves working full time in which one in three financial managers work more than 40 hours per week. These individuals must be accustomed to working in many industries, including but not limited to, banks and insurance companies (The Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015, n.p.). In order to be a financial manager an individual must be willing to go above and beyond in order to secure themselves a job since there are more applicants than there are job openings. Education and Prerequisites: Financial Manager As jobs are scarce in the business world candidates must show that they are capable and proficient in their craft as opposed to other candidates. Although, the minimum educational requirement is a Bachelor’s degree in Finance, Accounting, Economics, and Business Administration, those who wish to secure a job are encouraged to pursue their Master’s degree in Business Administration, Finance, and Economics. Along with a Bachelor’s degree, five years of experience is required and those who wish to receive certification may do so in two different ways even though certification is not required. The Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) Institute confers the Chartered Financial Analyst certification to investment professionals who have a Bachelor’s degree along with four years of work

Monday, May 11, 2020

Present Simple Exceptions in English Grammar

Here is the most important English language rule to remember: Almost every rule is about 90% valid. As confusing as that concept may be, it is certainly one of the most frustrating and truthful things about learning English. All that hard work to learn the correct grammar and then you read or hear something like this: Peter does want to come this summer. Its just that he cant get off work. As an excellent student, the first thought that comes to your mind is; wait a minute, that first sentence is a positive sentence.  Does want  cant be correct. It should be; Peter  wants to come this summer. Of course, according to what you have learned you are correct. However, in certain instances, you can use both the auxiliary and principal verb together to form a positive sentence. We allow this exception to add extra emphasis. In other words: Peter really wants to come this summer. Exceptions to the (English) Rules This feature will concern the various uses of and exceptions to the simple present. You all know that we usually use the simple present to express: Habitual actionsOpinions and preferencesTruths and facts You also know that the standard construction is the following: Positive: Tom goes to the beach on SaturdaysNegative: Mary doesnt like to eat fish on Fridays.Interrogative: Do they work in New York? Here are some simple present exceptions/extra possibilities. Exception 1 In order to add stress to a positive sentence, we can use the auxiliary verb to do. We often use this exception when we are contradicting what someone else has said. Example: A: I dont think Peter wants to come with us this summer. He told me that he wouldnt be able to come, but I think he just doesnt want to come with us. B: No, thats not true. Peter  does  want to come. Its just that he has too much work and cant get away from the office. Exception 2 The simple present can also be used for the future. We use the simple present to express future, scheduled, events with verbs that express beginning and end, or departure and arrival. Example: A: When does the train for Paris leave?B: It leaves at 7 tomorrow morning. Exception 3 We use the simple present in time clauses when talking about future events. The  when  is expressed with the simple present. The  result  is expressed with a future form, usually the future with will. Time clauses are introduced by time signifiers such as when, as soon as, before, after, etc. The construction is the same as the first conditional except that we use a time signifier such as as soon as instead of if. Example: A: When are you going to come and see the new house?B: We will come as soon as we finish the Smith project. Exception 4 We often use the simple present when we write timelines or biographical outlines -- even if all the events take place in the past. Example: 1911 - Pete Wilson is born in Seattle, Washington.1918 - Pete begins to play the saxophone.1927 - Pete is discovered by Fat Man Wallace.1928 - Fat Man Wallace arranges Petes first concert with Big Fanny and the Boys in New York.1936 - Pete goes to Paris. Exception 5 In the question form, we usually use the auxiliary verb to do. However, if the question word/words (usually who, which or what) express the subject and not the object of the sentence, the question is asked using positive sentence structure with a question mark. By the way, this is true of other tenses as well. Example: Regular: Who do you work with? (some people prefer Whom do you work with?)Exception: Who works with you? Regular: Which toothpaste do you use?Exception: Which brands of toothpaste use fluoride? Exception 6 Time words cause a great deal of confusion to English learners. Here are some exceptions concerning time words. Adverbs of frequency such as regularly, usually, normally, always, often, sometimes, never, etc. are generally put before the main verb. However, they can also be put at the beginning or end of a sentence. Example: Regular: John usually arrives home at 5 oclock.Also possible: Usually John arrives home at 5 oclock OR John arrives home at 5 oclock usually. Note: Some teachers do not consider the other possibilities correct. However, if you listen carefully to native speakers, you will also hear these forms used. Exception 7 The verb to be also causes special problems. If the adverb of frequency is placed in the middle of the sentence (as is usually the case) it must  follow  the verb to be. Example: Regular: Fred often eats in a bar and grill.To be: Fred is often late to work. Exception 8 This is one of the strangest uses of adverbs of frequency. Negative adverbs of frequency used in the initial position of a sentence must be followed by question word order. These adverbs include  rarely, never,  and  seldom. Example: Regular: Patricia rarely finishes work before 7 p.m.Initial placement: Seldom does John play volleyball. The above exceptions are certainly not the  only  exceptions, however, they are some of the most common ones that you will encounter in your English language-learning journey.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Did Gender Make a Difference within Slavery

Did Gender Make a Difference within Slavery? Within slavery there were harsh conditions which Frederick Douglass tries to convey in his biography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Within this narrative he dezribes how men and women slaves were treated differently by their masters. Women were abused by their master, physically, sexually, and mentally, while men were mostly abused physically and mentally. Many slave women suffered regular beatings. Frederick Douglass mentions several different instances where female slaves who he knew where beaten regularly. One of Douglasss first overseers, Mr. Plummer, would beat Douglasss aunt on a daily basis. Mr. Plummer whipped Douglasss aunt so often he began a†¦show more content†¦Men and women alike were physically abused by their masters, deserving or not. Not only did women suffer harsh physical abuse, they were also sexually abused. Many of the masters had relations with their female servants. Frederick Douglasss own father was white, and it was rumored that his father was his original master. Douglass believed the sexual abuse that masters inflicted was done too obviously to administer to their own lusts, and make a gratification of their wicked desires profitable as well as pleasurable (21). He believed female slaves were not only workers for the masters but also outlets for sexual frustration. Women did not only endure sexual abuse by their masters, they also had the responsibility of bearing children to increase their masters wealth. These women were treated as animals, being bought for child bearing. Frederick Douglass exemplifies this attitude toward female slaves through the story of a slave named Caroline. Douglass stated that her master, Mr. Covey bought her, as he said, for a breeder (72). When she produced a set of twins, Mr. Covey seemed to be highly pleased .... nothing they could do for Caroline during her confinement was too good, or too hard to be done (73). Men did not have the misfortune to be used for this purpose. Many male slaves enjoyed the fact that these women were present. It gave them the chance toShow MoreRelatedThe Original Riot Grrrls By Elizabeth Cady Stanton1385 Words   |  6 Pagesfor women in the United States of America, but how did this constitutional change happen? Many females prior to this accomplishment faced struggles from external forces that denied their rights and capabilities. Feminism and equal rights were and still are prominent in American society. In order to provide women of the future what is rightfully theirs, women during the 1700s have taken control of their opinions and used their strong-will to make the necessary changes in American society. During theRead MoreThe Division Of The Nineteenth Century1387 Words   |  6 PagesThe Perpetuated Division in the Nineteenth Century The nineteenth century was an era that a lot of memorable history events had happened. Race, place, gender and class have been perpetuated in this century and have influenced the society from then. White people were obviously living better than black people; big cities always offered more opportunities and chances for people to find jobs; males were admittedly getting jobs easier and having higher salaries than females at that time; people who wereRead MoreIncidents In The Life Of A Slave Girl Essay1604 Words   |  7 PagesHarriet Jones are similar but different in many ways. The narratives tell from the perspective of a man and woman the struggles of slavery and their journey to freedom. Their slave narratives help us to better comprehend the trials and tribulations that happened during slavery. The main difference between Douglass’s and Jacobs’ narratives is their gender. Their gender has a direct impact on the experiences they had and how their got to their freedo m. In Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, HarrietRead MoreStanding Solider, Kneeling Slaves By Kirk Savage Essay1402 Words   |  6 Pagesproblems Savage proposes of slavery, racism, and gender inequality. Savage touches on the basis that blackness was virtually equated with slavery so almost every African American was a slave in the 1860s who worked hard in different fields of labor. African Americans were not only already treated very unfairly because of their place in society as a slave but they were also dehumanized and not looked at as a contributing factor of society. He further discusses this idea that within slave labor, slavesRead MoreMajor Causes And Consequences Of The American Civil War1443 Words   |  6 Pagesbecause of a discrepancy on how to handle slavery. The difference in opinion is most likely a result of political, economic, and religious tension within the country. Before a civil war was even thought about, southern leaders spoke of freeing their slaves and many predicted the demise of slavery due to a lack of efficiency. In 1793 with Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, cotton soon became the most popular southern crop leading to a revival of interest in slavery. With cotton, the south gained a large amountRead MoreSkin Differentiation Within The African American Community1516 Words   |  7 Pages Skin Differentiation Within the African American Community Ebony S. Jackson HIST 221: African American History before 1877 American Public University Loni Bramson Skin Differentiation Within the African American Community It seems like modern day African Americans are constantly haunted by their past. There are sayings that African Americans do not have a direct cultural connect to their initial West African roots. Different factors, which resulted from enslavement of AfricansRead MoreEssay on The Confined Voices of Female Slaves1690 Words   |  7 Pagesexperience on slave lives and reveal the truth about slavery. Through the writing of narratives, slaves hoped to expose the cruel and inhumane aspects of slavery and their struggles, sorrows, and triumphs. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, slave narratives were important means of opening a dialogue between blacks and whites about slavery and freedom. Some slave narratives were crafted to enlighten white readers about the realities of slavery as an institution and the humanity of blackRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave And Harriet Jacobs s Incidents994 Words   |  4 Pagesperspective as slaves and dangerous, agonizing life. Nevertheless, there are also many dissimilarities between these narratives, including gender based treatments, main character’s first steps towards freedom, and main character’s personality. According to their narratives, Douglass and Jacobs were subjected to diverse treatments in their lives based on their gender. For example, Douglass’s masters whipped, starved, and tortured Douglass. However, unlike Jacobs, he was not exposed to rape. As DouglassRead MoreBlack Sexual Politics1702 Words   |  7 Pagescritical analysis of blacks in America and blacks as a race. The book analyzes this race on various levels, and these levels include, but are not limited to the following: the concept of â€Å"new† racism, gender ideology within the race, and the potential for progression of the racial politics. Collins makes many points and observations about the effect that blacks’ interactions have on each other and their view in society. An analytical look will be taken on each major subject that Collins talks aboutRead MoreRace Class Gender 456 Final Exam1311 Words   |  6 PagesL.ADKINS RCG 456 FINAL EXAM L. Adkins Race Class Gender 456 Final Exam Laura Adkins DSU Student â€Æ' L. Adkins Race Class Gender 456 Final Exam 1. Elaborate Noel’s theory on the contact situation of race relations (20 pts). Sociologist Donald Noel’s hypotheses state, â€Å"If two or more groups come together in a contact situation characterized by ethnocentrism, competition, and a differential in power, then some form of racial or ethnic stratification will result (Healey O Brien, 2015, p. 104)

Social Entrepreneurship Free Essays

There are substantial issues related to social entrepreneurship and how they are dealing with challenges including competition, structure, adapting to a changing economic and social environment, and employee retention and satisfaction. There is a perception by some small businesses that an unfair competition exists because a nonprofit may already be an established agency with resources of their own. They argue that social entrepreneurship may take a significant piece of a limited customer base that is shared by struggling small businesses. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Entrepreneurship or any similar topic only for you Order Now Differing views among scholars raise the issue of definition, mission, and validity of social entrepreneurships. In America, some believe that social entrepreneurship must remain in the private sector and operated as a substitute for social welfare. (Bacq Janssen 2001) Others limit their focus to the social entrepreneur’s role within the organization. Bill Drayton of The American Social Innovation School posits that the social entrepreneur’s characteristics as a change agent are the central element of social entrepreneurship, while others insist that the organization must remain the primary focus. The mission-centric nature of social entrepreneurship is a point of contention as well. Scholars are divided over the necessity to link the social mission with the financial goals. Some believe that the commercial activities do not need to be connected to the social mission, so long as the revenues are used to fund the social activities. Adam Smith (1976) suggests that businesses, although may have good intentions, are easily dissuaded from the pursuit of social good. Dees and Anderson (2003) also acknowledge the risks of conflicts between having both a social mission and wealth creation objective, admitting that successful examples of such setups are rare in practice. In some instances, as observed by Dees (2012), the social mission can â€Å"be at odds† with profit motives. (Dees, 2012, p. 321). Dacin, Dacin, and Matear (2010, p. 45) also highlight that it is an â€Å"increasingly important concern that all forms of business face: how to weave social and economic concerns into the fabric of organization management, to the mutual satisfaction of stakeholders.† Additionally, Dees and Anderson (2003) suggest that the most significant challenge of operating a for-profit social enterprise is the complexity of combining two opposed objectives which are amplified by the pressures to compromise social mission in pursuit of financial performance. Regarding mission drift, scholars argue that the business model brings more tensions that benefit. They suggest that situations will inevitably arise due to the different objectives leading to a divergence of goals and values. Smith, Gonin Besharov (2013) point to the â€Å"competing demands† and the â€Å"ethical dilemmas† that are likely to arise in such a situation. Seedco (2007) adds that even though social entrepreneurs have a strong commitment to the social goal, they may be quickly moved from this goal due to increasing financial problems (Seedco 2007). How to cite Social Entrepreneurship, Papers

Drug Abuse Problems Essay Example For Students

Drug Abuse Problems Essay The United States of America has been contending with adverse social and economic effects of the drug abuse, namely of heroin, since the foundation of this country. Our initial attempt to outlaw heroin with the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 resulted in the U.S. having the worst heroin problem in the world (Tooley 540). Although the legislative actions regarding heroin hitherto produced ominous results that rarely affected any individuals other than the addict and his or her family, the late twentieth century brings rise to the ever-infringing Several needle exchange programs sponsored by religious organizations in Australia have reported no new HIV infections resulting from needle sharing over the past three years (Fuller 9). Public safety groups in the United States are rapidly beginning to accept the effectiveness of needle exchange programs. The 113 needle exchange programs that are currently operating throughout the United States (Bowdy 26) are a result of this acceptance. These programs for the most part are established to support needle exchange more so than needle distribution (Fuller 10). Many needle exchange programs have been initiated by recovering addicts who understand the realities of addiction and the potential harm of needle sharing (Fuller 9). Perhaps addicts feel more comfortable taking advice from some one whom has been there and knows what they are going through. Social interaction between the addict and program is quite simple. Program clients are asked to donate their old injection equipment in exchange for new materials and identification cards issued by some programs, allowing the users to carry their injection equipment anywhere (Loconte 20), reducing the need to share needles. Volunteers keep track of old needles collected and sterile ones given out with a coding system that allows participants to remain anonymous (Green 15). Unlike some of their European counterparts, needle exchange programs in the U.S. do not advocate the use of vending machines to dispense hypodermic needles (Fuller 10). American programs understand the grave importance of regular contact between the addict and caring members of society who inform addicts about various avenues of health care and recovery during each visit (Fuller 10). The assistant director of the Adult Clinical AIDS Program at Boston Medical Center, Jon Fuller, feels that this intimate approach by American programs conveys a powerful message to addicts that their lives and well-being are still valued by the community despite their inability to break the cycle of addictive behavior (10). Addicts who can not stay clean or get admitted into a drug treatment program should be encouraged to take the necessary precautions to perform safe injections and not put others at risk as a result of their habit (Glantz 1078). From 1981 to 1997, drug related HIV cases in the United States rose from 1 to 31 percent not including infants and sexual partners infected by the user (Fuller 9). With contaminated needles infecting 33 Americans with HIV daily (Fuller 11), it was only a matter of time before an in-depth analysis of the drug related AIDS epidemic was made. More comprehensive research in regards to the effectiveness of needle exchange programs is necessary to provide the basis for making proper legislative decisions. Lebanon: A Globe-trotters Guide Essay The ban currently preventing federal funds from being allocated to support needle exchange programs in the U.S. greatly curtails the means necessary to establish and operate an effective needle exchange program. President Clinton initially planned .

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Women in the Crusades Historiography Paper Essay Example

Women in the Crusades Historiography Paper Essay Veronica Bilenkin HIS 329-701 Dr. Gathagan 10/19/12 Women in the Crusades: A Historiographical Essay When writing about women’s participation in the Crusades, there is more than just the topic of the Crusades involved. Historians have unfortunately come to the conclusion that women’s participation in any type of warfare was practically unheard of during most part of the Middle Ages, due to tight social structures and gender roles. Each historian delves into the topic between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries of the Crusades, dates in which most sources that they found reveal the most representation of women in combat. By finding a source that legitimately proves that women’s participation in war was more common than it is actually perceived, more details about the society’s thoughts on gender roles and issues were brought to light as well. Where historians Meghan McLaughlin, Elena Lourie and Helena Solterer differ is how they present the topic, what angle they argue for or against it, and the sources used to prove their arguments. We will write a custom essay sample on Women in the Crusades Historiography Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Women in the Crusades Historiography Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Women in the Crusades Historiography Paper specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Many may wonder how sources on women warriors can exist at a time when gender roles were a strict and unchangeable social issue of the Medieval Ages. Anything that seemed in favor of woman’s role in warfare or even towards feminism or equal rights in general seemed to be counter-culture, and was not reflected in a positive way because it was against the norm. Thus, writers of this tense topic had to use subtle methods of representation on behalf of their female heroines. Helena Solterer delves into such a direction in â€Å"Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France†, using Peter Gencien’s iconic Li Tournoiement as dames to demonstrate such an attempt in Medieval French society. Throughout his narrative, Gencien assumes male authorship by writing in a way that portrays women as sexual objects of an erotic fantasy; making sure that his character’s newly appointed statues as a warrior didn’t seem to undermine this stereotypical concept was of crucial importance so as to subtly hide the underlying message of possible woman representation. For instance, during the beginning of the narrative, Gencien goes back and forth between descriptions of the combat accomplished by the jousting women but constantly intervenes it with textual erotic imageries of which he insists is due to his own impulses as a man, and was therefore suffered by his male readers as well. Later on those interventions cease as the narrative progressive until there is nothing else but combat techniques and even ends with praise over the victory of the female warrior over the defeated male character. This finale comes as quite a surprise, and proves Solterer’s main point, for Gencien wouldn’t have ended his narrative in this way if he himself didn’t believe or imagine this unconventional result. It’s almost like he stated his own admission of females in combat as his final message rather than oppose it, a bold decision that defied standard gender roles at the time it was written. On the other hand, a whole text devoted to warrior deeds and battles fought by women were obtained from Saxo Grammaticus’s History of the Danes. McLaughlin’s essay, â€Å"The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe†, serves primarily an outline of the many women that this important source points out with the intent to prove that women’s participation included and exceeded beyond just sitting by the sidelines as wives of knights or as nurses From Richilde of Hainaut’s fight and capture in at the Battle of Cassel in France to Lathgertha of the Scandinavian Vikings exploits, the feats of many Medieval women warriors have gone unnoticed for far long enough. She makes an important note that the decline and rise of participation isn’t accidental or unusual circumstances, but because of historical structures and attitudes at the time that gave woman opportunities to participate. Focusing on the areas of Northern and Southern Europe (specifically France, England, Spain and Italy), McLaughlin’s essay provides the most information on the lengths that women had to go through in order to be recognized in military positions, along with two developments within later Medieval society that had nothing to do with gender or social issues. The point at which private family life began to blend with a family’s public image, the lines which women could cross into a knight’s world became blurred to a point that enabled women to participate as productive members of society, in this case as fighters, rather than to sit at home and raise the children. An example that McLaughlin provides was what she referred to as domestic military system, which allowed women in a noble household to view, learn and even participate in military practice and tactics due to an early exposure to the military units that lived, visited and conversed within the house of a noble lord. A good family name and heritage could also guarantee a women acceptance within military units through a prolonged period time in which they can become accustomed and comfortable enough with her to not exclude her from joining their ranks in the future (most women who tried to join without connections or former acquaintances were faced with mass resistance from their male counterparts, and were harassed and maltreated under accusations of witchcraft and sexual misconduct). For the longest time, the only explanation that was deemed acceptable for women taking up arms was to protect her land and children while the noble husband was away from the manor, a reaction that was not expected of them and that was only enacted in emergency situations. McLaughlin’s countless examples from Northern and Southern Europe prove this generalization incorrect, as so many woman warriors with a long history of warfare over a sweeping geographical context (from Northern Europe to Southern Europe) for personal gains and violent means have been dismissed primarily due to lost records or disbelief at the time that females performing such a masculine activity could exist. This disbelief is also most likely the cause of the unsexing of female warriors, for many had to adorn heavy armor (such as the Lombard princess Sichelgaita) that alters their appearance that resulted in many confused Muslims during the Crusades, who had no idea that some of the knights were women until their armor was taken off. Lourie argues that while there were no fighting female units in the European armies during the Crusades, her main source, The Primera Cronica General or PCG, provides an account of female military participation on the Muslim side in â€Å"Black Women Warriors in the Muslim Army†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The PCG was the first general history book for Spain, and depicted some of the countries early highlights and downfalls, as well as famous people and places. This essay specifically dealt with a battle transcribed in the PCG that occurred during the last years of the First Crusade, outside the abandoned city of Valencia. Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, also known as the Cid, made a name for himself as the eleventh century warrior who took the city from the Almoravids, a Muslim sect of Berber nomads lead by Yusuf ibn Tashfin that came from the Western Sahara. Their mission was of Dijah, or holy war, and to fulfill it was to overtake and conquer Morocco and most of Muslim Spain. During the battle in the plain of Quart, their massive army, led by Tashfin’s nephew, was considered invincible until the Cid and his small Christian garrison fought and defeated them for control of Valencia in 1094. The controversy surrounding this story begins with the accounts within the PCG that included statements from the Christian side regarding the three hundred black women who made up the front lines in the charging Almoravid army. Their appearance compromised of shaved heads and well-armed with Turkish bows or cuirasses as weapons. What happened five years later is the main setting for Lourie’s argument: in 1101, the Cid died within the city, which prompted his lieutenant Alvar Fanez to gather the remaining knights and leave the city which by that time became surrounded by vengeful Almoravids once again. After nine days of siege, the Christian garrison sneaked out of the city at dawn along with the embalmed body of the Cid to initiate a surprise attack on the unaware Almoravids, starting with the tents of the female archers. None of the archers had anticipated the attack, and in their effort to prepare themselves many were slaughtered and killed. This resulted in the remaining women fleeing for their lives, leading a retreat in which the Muslim men of the army followed suit. This would’ve been seen as a major victory for the Christians and astounding evidence to support female representation in warfare if the battle had not been considered â€Å"legendary†. According to Lourie, it has been considered such based solely upon female presence on the battlefield, which is constantly referred to as incredible even in today’s feminized view of gender roles, as well as confusion on interpretation from both Cid’s Christian army and the Muslim Almoravids. Despite evidence suggesting otherwise, historians have made efforts to provide reasons why this battle couldn’t have happened, that it was just an invention of the Christian scribe behind the PCG who wrote the battle in as homage to the Cid and his brave garrison. Lourie spends a major part of her essay discrediting the hypothesis proposed by L. P. Harvey, who strongly disagrees with the idea of women in a military setting of any sort, especially in the Crusades. Like most historians with this kind of mindset, his only evidence was pitifully small to say the least: the archers were in fact Tuareg men who were mistaken for women on account of their liltham, or veil, blocking their faces, their dark skin were a result of dyed stains that came off their lilthams, and a textual misunderstanding of Arabic sources that made the adjective â€Å"Targia† become transcribed as â€Å"Turkia† in the PCG (Lourie, 184). Lourie proves him wrong on all accounts with her own evidence: the earlier passage of the PCG described shaved heads and top knots, a specific part of the archer’s appearance that wouldn’t have been mentioned had their heads been covered by liltham. Her most convincing argument was that Tuareg men never used bows as weapons, while the PCG specifically refers to one of the Almoravids main fighters, Nujeymah, as being named â€Å"Star of the archers of Turkey†. In addition to that evidence, the debate over the interpretation and origin of the PCG conflicts with Harvey’s flawed theory, and encompasses the other half of Lourie’s essay. While it is clear that the PCG was written from a Christian standpoint by a Christian based on its description of the Almoravids; what is unclear is the intent of writing this particular battle: if one were to interpret the battle overall, the Cid’s garrison victory was guaranteed by the retreat of the women archers, which is not very glorious or noble considering his lieutenant decided to surprise attack not the entire army but basically a bunch of women. These women in turn did the work for the Cid’s garrison, resulting in an overall victory but at an embarrassing cost to their image. They are not the only ones however: Lourie introduces a new angle; one that suggests that perhaps the narrative of the battle was based off the Muslim Almoravid’s placing blame on their female militants for leading a retreat so fast and so soon, in an attempt to cover up their own embarrassment over the battle outcome. All three essays eloquently address the subject of exposing women’s military contributions in the medieval world. The period of the Crusades was one of the most well-known religious military operations in history, and fighting for a cause that large invited a lot of opportunity for new recruitment from areas society couldn’t have foreseen, or chose not to due to strict gender roles of the time. In fact, there is a section of Solterer’s paper in which she highlighted specific sanctions and canon laws enforced by the Church just to prevent women specifically from joining the army (Solterer, 535-536). Of course, Lourie’s essay depicts women simply being women in Muslim armies, an acceptance was along with the statement that â€Å"there were certainly no female fighting units, either then or later, in European armies† (Lourie, 2000, 1). However, according to Solterer’s rticle on women representation in Medieval France, the Crusades featured women on both sides of the battle. The only difference between them was that while Lourie’s Muslim women seemed more at place and welcomed in the Muslim army, an Arab chronicler used by Solterer depicts the Frankish armies as including women warriors who â€Å"dressed in men’s clothing†¦were not recognized as women until they had been stripped of their arms† (Solterer, 1991, 540). McLaughlin emphasis’s that it’s not necessarily the progression of cultural mindset that allowed women’s participation but the progression of society itself that opened new doors for women to walk into and prove themselves as fierce and capable of military duty as their male counterparts. That is why her essay covered a broad area of individuals and their geographic locations in Europe, as providing a lot of perspectives proved her main argument. Both Solterer’s and Lourie’s essays were narrowly focused on a specific element of the topic of women representation: Solterer’s focused on Medieval France basing her evidence on a fictional text, while Lourie’s historical text provided her with proof of female military activity during the Crusades. The style of broadness and wide range of characters written by McLaughlin wrote on women’s achievements in the military world that leads into why they aren’t as accepted despite their prolonged presence in Medieval history, thus it was a good introductory essay for one to get started on thinking about such a topic. The literary source that Lourie emphasized in her essay is revealing and reliable only to a point; the author of that source might have had his own neutral opinion on women’s participation in combat, but his main intention in writing his narrative was to entertain, or else no one in that society would’ve accepted a then outlandish idea of mixing women and jousting. Therefore, the only essay whose specific and detailed style focused on a Crusade battle with leading, fighting, and involved women was Lourie’s; her emphasis on the debate over interpretation of the source as well as showing full support and evidence to prove that the presence and participation of women warriors didn’t mean the battle never took place was really drew me in, and definitely convinced me towards her overall thesis. The Middle Ages was a scare time for any sources, so it’s no surprise that sources that suggest women’s participation in warfare are limited. However, that is precisely the reason why the sources that mention or advocate it even the tiniest amount should be thoroughly examined, not put aside as myth or misinterpretation. While more reliable sources may depict the more popular patriarchal and conventional mindset of the time, it is not a true depiction of how Medieval society was like back then; controversial topics like women’s advancement from traditional gender roles was tense and still is today, and sources provided in all three essays highlight the reactions to new outlooks and settings for women to participate in. Exploring new textual territories, from fictional narratives to so called lost legends even, is crucial to getting new perspectives on a much debated topic, and hopefully results in a more enhanced understanding of one of the most complicated time periods for women in history. Bibliography M. McLaughlin, ‘The woman warrior: Gender, warfare and society in medieval Europe’, Women’s Studies, 17 (1990) 193–209. H. Solterer, ‘Figures of female militancy in medieval France’, Signs, 16 (1991) 522–49. E. Lourie, ‘Black women warriors in the Muslim army besieging Valencia and the Cid’s victory: A problem of interpretation’, Traditio, 55 (2000) 181–209.